Libya and Arab Spring - [PDF Document] (2024)

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    SPECIAL REPORT: Libya after Gadhafi

    Future of Libya with Derek Stoffel - September 8, 201111:44

    Arab Spring Revisited24:00

    The latest:

    Libyan rebel fighters have captured the airport and other partsof Sabha, a southern city that

    is one of the last remaining strongholds of Col. MoammarGadhafi's forces.

    The push to capture Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte and the mountainenclave of Bani Walid, however, has

    been stymied by well-armed loyalist forces, which have foughtback with rockets and other heavy


    Since rebels captured Tripoli a month ago, the ousted Gadhafihas been in hiding. He has not been


    Amnesty International reportsthat forces supporting Gadhafikilled and injured scores of unarmed

    protesters, made critics disappear, used illegal cluster bombs,launched artillery, mortar and rocket

    attacks against residential areas and, without any legalproceedings, executed captives. Amnesty says

    that anti-Gadhafi forces "also tortured and ill-treated capturedsoldiers, suspected 'mercenaries' and

    other alleged Gadhafi loyalists."

    In a recent speech in Tripoli, National Transitional Councilchairman Mustafa Abdel Jalil told a crowd of

    10,000 in Martyrs' Square that the NTC strives "for a state thatwill have Islamic shariah law as the basis

    of legislation."

    In the latest statement attributed to Gadhafi that was read onSyria's Al-Rai TV, he is quoted as saying,

    "There is nothing more to do except fight until victory."

    Canadian diplomats, including ambassador Sandra McCardell,areback on the ground in Libya,

    refurbishing and securing the mission so they can resume normaldiplomatic relations. And Canada is

    moving to unfreeze$2.2 billion worth of Libyan assets, ForeignAffairs Minister John Baird said on Sept.


    China has officially recognizedthe National Transitional Councilof Libya as the ruling authority in Libya.

    Oil production has reached 160,000 barrels per day at the Sariroil field in eastern Libya.

    The fight for Libya

    Background: Libya in crisisWho: Although Gadhafi, who has ruledthe North African country since 1969, had vowed to fight to the

    death, his spokesman said on Aug. 28 that the embattled Libyanleader was willing tonegotiate a

    transfer of power

    . Sincepro-democracy demonstrationsbegan on Feb. 18, theembattled leader

    hasvariously accused themof being the work of Westerninfiltrators, drug-addled youth and al-Qaeda.

    AnInternational Criminal Court arrest warrantalleges Gadhafi andhis inner circle plotted a "state policy

    aimed at deterring and quelling by any means including by theuse of lethal force the

    demonstrations by civilians against the regime."

    The people: To this day, most Libyans identify themselves basedon tribal alliances.

    Where: Early battles in the Libyan civil war focused on areas inthe rebel-dominated east, such as the

    cities ofBregaandAjdabiya. All along, NATO planes, includingCanadian jets, targeted Libyan air

    defences, especially around Tripoli and the western city ofMisrata. After consolidating their positions in

    the east, the anti-Gadhafi forcesclosed in on Tripoli.

    The resources:

    UN intervention: TheUN Security Council votedon March 17 toapprove ano-fly zonein Libya and air

    strikes against Gadhafi forces but stopped short of puttingtroops on the ground. On March 31,

    NATOassumed controlover the military operation, taking over fromthe U.S., France and Britain, which

    had been leading the mission, and installing Canadian Lt.-Gen.Charles Bouchard as commander of the

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    The International Organization for Migration estimates more than345,000 people have fled Libya since

    the conflict began, including many onboats to Italy.

    Canadian impact:Canadian troops are part of the NATO-led missionin Libya, and while visiting the

    United Nations on Sept. 20, Prime Minister Stephen Harperannounced that he would ask Parliament for

    a three-month extension to the Canadian mission.

    "We will participate in the mission until armed threatsemanating from Gadhafi forces are eliminated fromthe country,"Harper told reporters in New York. "We will ask Parliament toextend the mission by three

    months but I'll be frank with you in saying, we're prettyoptimistic that we'll achieve our objectives well

    before that timeline."

    The House of Commonsvoted overwhelminglyin favour of a previousthree-and-a-half-month mission

    extension in June.

    Libya photo galleries has about 20 photo galleries on Libya, including oneonCanadas Air Force in Libya.

    To help find them, use thisGoogle search link.

    On Aug. 9,Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird announcedthatCanada had declared diplomats at the

    Libyan Embassy in Ottawapersonae non gratae and ordered them toleave the country, freezing their

    bank accounts in the process.

    Canada has recognized the rebel-formed National TransitionalCouncil as the legitimate government of


    On June 9, Defence Minister Peter MacKay said the Canadianmission in Libyahas cost $26 millionand

    could rise to $60 million by September. That includes the costof fuel for fighter planes and patrol craft as

    well as the 300 laser-guided bombs dropped between March 19 toJune 2.

    Canada has sevenCF-18 fighter jets, twoCP-140 Aurorapatrolplanes, two CC-130 Hercules tankers

    and a refueller in the region helping to enforce the no-fly zoneand arms embargo against Libya, and the

    warshipHMCS Charlottetownwas there butis now home. TheHMCSVancouverhas arrived in its place.

    At the height of the mission, there were about 650 Canadianpersonnel in the area. About 435 personnel

    are still there.

    PHOTOS: Gadhafi through the years


    2011 Libyan civil war

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    For more details on this topic, seeTimeline of the 2011 Libyancivil war.

    Cities underNational Transitional Councilcontrol

    Cities underMuammar Gaddafi's control

    Ongoing fighting

    Date 15 February 2011 ongoing (221 days)

    Location Libya

    Status Ongoing

    Anti-Gaddafi forcescapture and


    aand other Libyan cities

    92 countries,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya
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    recogniseNTC as sole governing

    authority for Libya


    National Transitional



    Liberation Army


    Libyan Air Force



    Foreign military


    UN member


    Resolution 1973:






    full list[show]

    Tunisian Army(border


    Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

    Libyan Armed


    Libyan Army

    Libyan Air


    Libyan Navy

    Paramilitary forces



    Foreign mercenaries



    Commanders and leaders

    Mustafa Abdul Jalil

    (Chairman of theNTC)[20]

    Abdul Hafiz Ghoga

    (Vice-Chairman of


    Mahmoud Jibril

    (InterimLibyan Prime


    Jalal al-Digheily

    Omar El-Hariri[21]



    Muammar Gaddafi

    Muammar Gaddafi's

    sons:Saif al-Islam Gaddafi

    Khamis al-Gaddafi

    Al-Mu'tasim-Billah al-Gaddafi

    Al-Saadi al-Gaddafi

    Military leaders:

    Abdullah Senussi

    (Head of Military


    Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr
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    Abdul Fatah


    Khalifa Belqasim


    Mahdi al-Harati

    Abu Oweis

    Abdul Hassan

    Khalid Shahmah

    Anders Fogh


    (Secretary General)

    James G. Stavridis


    Charles Bouchard



    Ralph Jodice

    (Air Commander)

    Rinaldo Veri

    (Martime Commander)

    Carter Ham

    Stephen Harper

    (Prime Minister of


    Marc Lessard



    Lars Lkke


    (Prime Minister of


    Knud Bartels

    Nicolas Sarkozy

    douard Guillaud

    Silvio Berlusconi

    Rinaldo VeriJens Stoltenberg

    Harald Sunde

    David Cameron

    (Prime Minister of the


    SirStuart Peach

    (Chief of Joint

    (Minister of Defence)

    Massoud Abdelhafid

    (Head of the secret police)



    (Libyan Prime Minister)

    Mahdi al-Arabi(POW)

    (Deputy chief of staff of the

    army and commander of

    special forces)

    Moussa Ibrahim

    (Libyan government


    Mohamed Abu Al-Quasim al-Zwai(POW)

    (Secretary-General of

    theGeneral People's


    Abuzed Omar


    (Head ofNational




    (Deputy head of the secret


    Salih Rajab al-Mismari

    (Minister of Public Security)

    Rafi al-Sharif

    (Head of the Navy)

    Ali Sharif al-Rifi(General and Head of the

    Air Force)

    Ali Kana

    (General and commander of

    southern forces)

    Awad Hamza

    (Infantry leader)

    Bashir Hawadi

    (General and field


    Mustafa al-Kharoubi

    (General and military


    Nasr al-Mabrouk

    (General and primary police

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    Barack Obama

    (President of the United


    Carter Ham

    Sam Locklear

    Abdullah II

    Hamad bin Khalifa Al


    Sverker Granson

    Khalifa bin Zayed Al


    Mansour Dao

    (Head of Gaddafi's personal



    35,00040,000 defecting

    soldiers and volunteers

    International Forces:

    Numerous air and

    maritime forces (see here)


    and militia

    Casualties and losses

    5,1326,522 opposition

    fighters and supporters

    killed, 1,7751,894

    missing (seehere)

    1 airman killed in

    traffic accident in



    Marinescaptured (later


    2 soldiers killed[31]

    2,0702,321 soldiers killed


    792+ captured[32]

    Estimated total casualties on both sides, including


    30,000 killed, 4,000 missing[33]

    The 2011 Libyan civil war, also known as the LibyanRevolution[34][35][36][37][38], is an ongoing armed

    conflict in the North African state ofLibyabeing fought betweenforces loyal toMuammar Gaddafiand his

    regime and those seeking to depose him.[39][40]The situationbegan on 15 February 2011 as a series of

    peaceful protests which were met with military force by theGaddafi regime. The protests escalated into
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    an uprising that spread across the country, with the forcesopposing Gaddafi establishing a government

    based in Benghazi named theNational Transitional Councilwhosestated goal is to overthrow the

    Gaddafi-led government and hold democratic elections.[41]

    TheUnited Nations Security Councilpassed aninitialresolutionfreezing the assets of Gaddafi and ten

    members of his inner circle, and restricting their travel. Theresolution also referred the actions of thegovernment totheInternational Criminal Courtfor investigation,[42]and an arrestwarrant for Gaddafi was

    issued on 27 June.[43]This was followed by an arrest warrantissued byInterpolon 8 September.[44]

    In early March, Gaddafi's forces rallied, pushed eastwards andre-took several coastal cities before

    attacking Benghazi. A furtherU.N. resolutionauthorized memberstates to establish and enforce ano-fly

    zone over Libya.[45]The Gaddafi government then announced aceasefire, but failed to uphold it.[46]

    In August, rebel forcesengaged in a coastal offensiveand tookmost of their lost territory, andcaptured

    the capital city of Tripoli,[47]while Gaddafi evaded capture andloyalists engaged in a rearguard


    Until 16 September 2011,Libya under Gaddafiwas officially knownas theLibyan Arab Jamahiriyaby

    theUnited Nations.[49]The UN now recognises the NationalTransitional Council as the legal

    representative of the country.[50]On 20 September, theAfricanUnionofficially recognised the National

    Transitional Council as the legitimate representative ofLibya.[51]


    Main article:History of Libya under Gaddafi


    Muammar Gaddafiwas thede-factoruler of Libya since he led amilitary coup that overthrewKing Idris

    Iin 1969.[52]He abolished theLibyan Constitutionof 1951, andadopted laws based on his own ideology.

    Under Gaddafi, Libya was theoretically a decentralized,democratic state run according to the philosophy

    of Gaddafi'sGreen Book, with Gaddafi retaining a ceremonialposition. Libya was officially run by a

    system of people's committees which served as local governmentsfor the country's subdivisions, an

    indirectly-electedGeneral People's Congressas the legislature,and theGeneral People's Committee,

    led by a Secretary-General, as the executive branch. Inpractice, however, these structures were

    manipulated to ensure the dominance of Gaddafi, who continued todominate all aspects of government,

    and the country's political system was widely seen asarubber-stamp.[53]

    WikiLeaks'disclosure of confidential US diplomaticcablesrevealed US diplomats there speaking of

    Gaddafi's "mastery of tactical maneuvering".[54]While placingrelatives and loyal members ofhis tribein

    central military and government positions, he skillfullymarginalized supporters and rivals, thus

    maintaining a delicate balance of powers, stability and economicdevelopments. This extended even to

    his own sons, as he repeatedly changed affections to avoid therise of a clear successor and rival.[54]

    Gaddafi, fearing a military coup against his government,deliberately kept Libya's military relatively weak.

    TheLibyan Armyconsisted of about 50,000 personnel. Its mostpowerful units were four crack brigades

    of highly equipped and trained soldiers, composed of members ofGaddafi's tribe or members of other

    tribes loyal to him. One, theKhamis Brigade, was led by hissonKhamis. Local militias and Revolutionary

    Committees across the country were also kept well-armed. Bycontrast, regular military units were poorly

    armed and trained, and were armed with largely outdated militaryequipment.[55][56][57]

    Development and corruption
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    Most of the business enterprise has been controlled by Gaddafiand his family.[58]A leaked diplomatic

    cable describes Libyan economy as "akleptocracyin which thegovernment either the al-Qadhafi family

    itself or its close political allies has a direct stake inanything worth buying, selling or

    owning".[59]Gaddafi amassed a vast personal fortune during his42-year rule.[60]

    Much of the state's income comes fromits oil production, whichsoared in the 1970s, and was spent onarms purchases and onsponsoring violence around the world.[61][62]Gaddafi's relativesadopted lavish

    lifestyles, including luxurious homes, Hollywood filminvestments and private parties with American pop


    Petroleum revenues contributes up to 58% of Libya'sGDP.[64]Governments withresource curserevenue

    have a lower need for taxes from other industries andconsequently feel less pressure to develop their

    middle class. To calm down opposition, they can use the incomefrom natural resources to offer services

    to the population, or to specific governmentsupporters.[65]Libya's oil wealth being spread over a

    relatively small population has given a higher GDP per capitathan in neighbouring states.[66][67][68]Libya's

    GDP per capita (PPP),human development index, and literacy ratewere better than in Egypt and

    Tunisia, whoserevolutionspreceded the outbreak of protests inLibya.[69]Libya'scorruption perception

    indexin 2010 was 2.2, ranking 146th out of 178 countries, whichwas worse than that of Egypt (rank

    98th) and Tunisia (rank 59th), two neighbouring states that haduprisings preceding Libya's.[70]One

    paper speculates that such situation creates a wider contrastbetween good education, high demand for

    democracy, and the government's practices (perceived corruption,political system, supply of


    An estimated 20.74% of Libyan citizens were unemployed, andabout one-third lived below the national

    poverty line. More than 16% of families had none of its membersearning a stable income, while 43.3%

    had just one. Despite one of the highest unemployment rates inthe region, there was a consistent labor

    shortage with over a million migrant workers present on themarket.[71]These migrant workers formed the

    bulk of the refugees leaving Libya after the beginning ofhostilities.

    Some of the worst economic conditions are in the eastern partsof the state, once a breadbasket of the

    ancient world. Gaddafi only extracted oil there.[72][73]Not muchhousing or infrastructure were developed

    for 40 years. For example, the only sewage facility in Banghaziis over 40 years old, and untreated

    sewage has resulted in environmental problems.[74]Under Gaddafirule, the poor medical system had

    become an infuriating symbol of the spotty distribution ofresources in the country. The lack of decent

    medical care often forced Libyans to seek medical care inneighboring countries such as Tunisia and


    The civil war is viewed as a part of theArab Spring, which hasalready resulted in the ousting of long-

    term presidents of adjacent Tunisia and Egypt, with the initialprotests all using similar slogans.[76]Social

    mediaplayed an important role in organizing theopposition.[77]

    Human rights and violations in Libya

    Further information:Human rights in Libya

    According to the 2009Freedom of the Press Index, Libya is themost-censored state in the Middle East

    and North Africa.[78]

    Gaddafi created Revolutionary committees to keep tight controlover internal dissent in 1973. Ten to 20

    percent of Libyans worked as informants for these committees.Surveillance took place in the

    government, in factories, and in the education sector.[79]Thegovernment often executed dissidents

    through public hangings and mutilations and rebroadcast them onstate television channels.[79][80]In

    2011, Libya's press was rated as the most censored in the MiddleEast and North Africa.[81]Up to the mid
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    1980s, Libya's intelligence service conducted assassinations ofLibyan dissidents around the

    world.[79][82]As late as 2004, Gaddafi still provided bountieson his critics, including $1 million for one

    Libyan journalist in the United Kingdom.[83]Until recently,foreign languages such as English and French

    were banned from school syllabus and talking with foreignersabout politics carried a three-year prison

    term.[84]Dissent was illegal under Law 75 of 1973, and Gaddafiregularly asserted that anyone guilty of

    founding a political party would be executed.[79]

    Anti-Gaddafi movement, beginnings of National TransitionalCouncil

    Beginnings of open protest

    Between 13 and 16 January, upset at delays in the building ofhousing units and over political corruption,

    protesters inBayda,Darnah, Benghazi,Bani Walidand other citiesbroke into and occupied housing that

    the government was building, and protesters also clashed withpolice inBaydaand attacked government

    offices.[85][86]By 27 January, the government had responded tothe housing unrest with a 20 billion

    investment fund to provide housing anddevelopment.[87][88][89]

    The flag of the formerKingdom of Libya. It, or modifiedversions, has been used by many protesters as


    In late January, Jamal al-Hajji, a writer, political commentatorand accountant, "call[ed] on the Internet for

    demonstrations to be held in support of greater freedoms inLibya" inspired by

    theTunisianandEgyptianrevolutions. He was arrested on 1 Februaryby plain-clothes police officers,

    and charged on 3 February with injuring someone with his car.Amnesty International claimed thatbecause al-Hajji had previouslybeen imprisoned for his non-violent political opinions, the realreason for

    the present arrest appeared to be his call fordemonstrations.[92]In early February, Gaddafi, on behalf of

    the Jamahiriya, met with political activists, journalists, andmedia figures and warned them that they

    would be held responsible if they disturbed the peace or createdchaos in Libya.[93]

    Uprising and civil war

    Main article:Timeline of the 2011 Libyan civil war beforeintervention

    A girl in Benghazi with a placard saying that the Libyan tribesare united, on 23 February 2011

    The protests, unrest and confrontations began in earnest on 15February 2011. On the evening of 15

    February, between 500 and 600 demonstrators protested in frontof Benghazi's police headquarters after

    the arrest of human rights lawyerFathi Terbil. The protest wasbroken up violently by police, resulting in

    clashes in which 38 people were injured, among them ten securitypersonnel.[94][95]The novelist Idris Al-

    Mesmari was arrested hours after giving an interview withAlJazeeraabout the police reaction to

    protests.[94]InBaydaandZintan, hundreds of protesters in eachtown called for an end of the Gaddafi

    regime and set fire to police and securitybuildings.[94]InZintan, the protesters set up tents in the town

    centre.[94]The armed protests continued the following day inBenghazi,DarnahandBayda. Libyan

    security forces allegedly responded with lethal force. Hundredsgathered atMaydan al-Shajarain

    Benghazi, and authorities tried to disperse protesters withwater cannons.[96]

    The Libyan flag is flown from a communications tower in Bayda inJuly.

    A "Day of Rage" in Libya and by Libyans in exile was planned for17 February.[93][97][98]TheNational

    Conference for the Libyan Oppositionasked that all groupsopposed to the Gaddafi regime protest on 17

    February, in memory of demonstrations in Benghazi five yearsearlier.[93]The plans to protest were,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya,_2011-07-17).jpg,_Libya,_Libya,_Libya
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